Gas Lease Glossary of Terms

Taken from and other sources as referenced.



The sale, transfer or conveyance of all or a fraction of ownership interest or rights owned in real estate or other such property. The term is commonly used in the oil and gas business to convey working interest, leases, royalty, overriding royalty interests and net profit interests.


A barrel of 42 U.S. gallons of oil


A billion cubic feet of natural gas


A billion cubic feet equivalent, determined using the ratio of 6 Mcf of natural gas to 1 Bbl of crude oil, condensate or natural gas liquids.


Barrels of oil equivalent


A monetary incentive given by the company to the mineral owner for executing or ratifying an oil, gas and/or mineral lease.


The installation of permanent equipment for the production of oil or gas.


A written contract between a grantor and grantee, used to transfer title or rights to real estate or property. Typical conveyances include oil, gas and mineral leases; assignments; deeds and rights of way.


Consideration paid to the lessor by a lessee to extend the terms of an oil and gas lease in the absence of operations and/or production that is contractually required to hold the lease. This consideration is usually required to be paid on or before the anniversary date of the oil and gas lease during its primary term, and typically extends the lease for an additional year. Nonpayment of the delay rental in the absence of production or commencement of operations will generally result in abandonment of the lease after its primary term has expired.


A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.


A well drilled to find and produce oil or gas in an unproved area, to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or gas in another reservoir, or to extend a known reservoir.


A clause which stipulates that if higher terms are negotiated you will get the difference within a certain amount of time or your lease is invalid. A Favored Nations clause may be negotiated for both the bonus and the royalty or one or the other. A time limit specifies the time that the clause is in effect, and a geographic limitation is generally included to define the distance from the leased land where the clause is to be honored.


A drilling technique that permits the operator to contact and intersect a larger portion of the producing horizon than conventional vertical drilling techniques and can result in both increased production rates and greater ultimate recoveries of hydrocarbons.


A contract between mineral owner, otherwise known as the lessor and a company or working interest owner, otherwise known as the lessee in which the lessor grants the lessee the right to explore, drill and produce oil, gas and other minerals for a specified primary term and as long thereafter as oil, gas or other minerals are being produced in paying quantities. This lease gives the lessee a working interest. The oil and gas lease is granted in exchange for royalty payments to the lessor.


One thousand barrels of oil


A thousand cubic feet of natural gas


1,000 cubic feet equivalent, determined using the ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one Bbl of crude oil, condensate or natural gas liquids.


Million barrels of oil


Million barrels of oil equivalent


Million cubic feet of natural gas


Milion cubic feet of gas equivalent, determined using the ratio of 6 Mcf of natural gas to 1 Bbl of crude oil, condensate or natural gas liquids.


An oil and gas lease in which delay rentals for the entire primary term are paid in advance with the bonus consideration.


The accumulation of smaller tracts of land, the sum total acreage of which are required for a governmental agency to grant a well permit or assign a production quota or allowable to an operator.


The period of time during which an oil and gas lease will be in effect, in the absence of production, drilling or other operations specified by the lease. The oil and gas lease can be perpetuated past the primary term by production in paying quantities, drilling, operations and/or the payment of shut-in royalties specified by the lease.


A clause, which is calculated to prevent the holding of non-pooled acreage in a lease while certain portions of the lease acreage are being held under pooled arrangements. The main purpose of a Pugh clause is to protect the landowner from having their entire property held under a lease by production from a very small portion.


The completion for production of an existing well bore in another formation from that in which the well has been previously completed.


A percentage share of production, or the value derived from production, paid from a producing well. It is important to specify how royalties are to be calculated and paid as well as insuring that you are given the right to have a third party auditor verify the records of the production from your wells. Your royalty should be free of the costs of drilling and producing.


The term of an oil and gas lease in which the lease is held in force after expiration of the primary term. Production, operations, continuous drilling and/or shut-in royalty payments are often used to extend an oil and gas lease into its secondary term.


Mineral rights may be severed or separated from surface rights by mineral deed or by mineral reservation. Severance by mineral deed occurs when a party owning both surface rights and mineral rights sells or grants by deed all or a portion of the mineral rights underlying his/ her property. This deed, known as a mineral deed, is registered with the county register of deeds and will become a part of the abstract of title to the land involved.


A payment stipulated in the oil and gas lease, which royalty owners receive in lieu of actual production, when a gas well is shut-in due to lack of a suitable market, a lack of facilities to produce the product, or other cases defined within the shut-in provisions contained in the oil and gas lease. It is the responsibility of the landowner to clearly establish the allowable time limits for a well to be shut in by way of an addendum.


Mortgage Issues:

There are a few possible "Issues" that need to be addressed with your mortgage company/lender BEFORE signing the mineral rights lease.              
1). Is their anything written into your loan documents that may require permission from your lender to sign a mineral rights lease?
2). Do you need permission from the lender, ONLY in the case of Subordination? Or, do you need their permission EVEN in the event that there is NO Subordination?
3). If you need permission, ONLY in the case of Subordination, your loan documents will actually state that there IS a Subordination Clause. Go ahead and request the paperwork and tell them you are not sure if there will be Subordination or not. (You will ONLY need to fill out the Subordination paperwork in the event that Carrizo drills directly underneath your property. In the event that this happens, you will be notified AFTER your lease has been signed and planning, permitting, etc. has been determined). 


4). In looking at several loan documents, it seems as though, there may be some property owners that could incur a fee AND need permission from their lender even in the event that there is NO Subordination. The main goal of mortgage companies and/or lenders, are to make sure that no damage is done to the property especially with "Surface Rights" drilling. Because we are entering into a "NO Surface Rights" lease, you may be able to provide a copy of the lease and negotiate this fee, if any,  be waived.

Some mortgages have provisions on the loan requiring “security interest”. The Mortgage company calls this “call in the loan” or foreclosure. The mortgage company reserves the first right to receive any monies when your home is sold or foreclosed on. They do not want an oil and gas company to have the first security right on the mineral rights portion of your property. Also, they want to make sure that drilling will not be done on the property (Surface Rights Lease), which could possibly incur damage to the surface rights portion of the property. You may only need to supply a copy of the "No Surface Rights" lease in order to get approval to sign the lease.

Basically, each person may have a different loan agreement, even in the event that they are using the same mortgage company. Basically, it is YOUR responsibility to check with your mortgage company BEFORE you sign the lease. 


An oil and gas lease that expires after a specified period of time, regardless of whether oil, gas and/or other minerals are being produced.


An oil and gas lease wherein the bonus consideration is paid at the signing of the lease. However, this lease becomes effective only after the expiration or termination of an existing lease on the tract of land.


The combining of multiple wells to produce from a specified reservoir.


A drilling technique that bores a single well shaft vertically into the desired geological strate.


Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production.

Last updated by Keith Mauck (Site Publisher) Aug 7, 2008.

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